Life Skills Training Manual For Youth Ppt

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ГлавнаяКоллекция 'Otherreferats'ПедагогикаEmployment of the youth with disabilities as an important lever of its labour potential realization and social integration

This manual contains a list of services for youth and their families living in Davidson County, Nashville, TN. The range of services includes counseling, community development, economic/financial aid, education, foreign services, health services, and legal assistance. The manual was designed as a comprehensive tool that can be utilized as an.

The article deals with current issues of professional and social rehabilitation of the young people with disabilities. In particular, special attention is paid to the problem of professional education, including inclusive one and social integration.

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EMPLOYMENT OF THE YOUTH WITH DISABILITIES AS AN IMPORTANT LEVER OF ITS LABOUR POTENTIAL REALIZATION AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION

Bozhko Ya.A.

leading specialist of the Educational Process Support Department at the Institute of Public Administration and Management of the National Academy of Public Administration of Ukraine of the President of Ukraine

The article deals with current issues of professional and social rehabilitation of the young people with disabilities. In particular, special attention is paid to the problem of professional education, including inclusive one, and labor and social integration in the workplace. The article concludes that state efforts to address the employment of youth with disabilities are insufficient.

Keywords: youth with disabilities, employment, vocational rehabilitation, vocational education, adaptation, social integration

social rehabilitation young people

The development of vocational rehabilitation and regulation of employment of persons with disabilities from the category of youth takes place in the legal field, which is ensured by the Constitution of Ukraine, Decrees of the President of Ukraine, Laws of Ukraine, resolutions of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, the UN Declarations on Human Rights, rights of persons with disabilities, and interaction with government and public institutions, international organizations in solving the problem of employment of persons with disabilities.

Developing a social model of supporting a child with disabilities and young people with disabilities, it is necessary to proceed from the fact that their integration into society is a purposeful process of transferring social experience by society, taking into account the characteristics and needs of various categories of persons with disabilities with their active participation, as well as ensuring adequate conditions for this. This will help, as experience shows, to attract persons with disabilities to all social systems, structures, societies and relationships designed for healthy children and young people, to actively participate in the main activities of the society in accordance with age and sex, prepare them for a full life, the most complete self-realization and disclosure of oneself as an individual [2, c. 67].

Effective social, professional adaptation and integration of children and young people into society is possible provided that an innovative educational and rehabilitation, correctional and developmental environment is created that systematically combines the medical, psychological, pedagogical and social aspects, contributes to self-regulation of behavior, self-rehabilitation, development and self-development of the individual.

One of the ways to integrate a child with disabilities and young people with disabilities into the society, including professional integration, i.e. addressing the problem of employment, there should be an inclusive (included) training - a system of educational services in a general educational institution, based on the principle of ensuring the fundamental right of a child to education and the right to study in the place of residence.

Life Skills Program

In order to ensure equal access to quality education, general education and higher education institutions should adapt curricula and plans, methods and forms of education to the individual educational requirements of a child with developmental needs, make optimal use of available resources and actively involve the educational community in supporting these children.

In countries with a conservative model of social policy (Austria, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy), less significant state support is provided for the education of children and young people with special needs, it is closely linked with the provision of material support for the education and professionalization of disabled persons from potential employers. Inclusive education in these countries is often seen as an opportunity to provide education to specific individuals without a broad introduction of integration for all people with developmental needs [1, c. 103-120]. In addition, we note that the inclusive approach is partially valid in countries where mainly integrated education is introduced, for example, in Belgium, where the law on the elimination of barriers between the general and the special education system is approved experimentally The following combinations of integrated and inclusive education have been tested and used, such as: conducting major classes in general education at mass schools, and additional correctional activities - at a special school; with general education at a special institution permanent education during the year at a mass school. Flexible combination of special and general education is provided through the creation of an individual curriculum for children and young people with disabilities and the fixing of funds on its implementation for the child, and not for a certain institution of education.

Among the countries with a conservative model of social policy, Italy is one of the first recognized inclusive education as the most appropriate form of education for a child with a disability. In the country, over 90% of children with disabilities in psycho-physical development study at general type institutions near the house of residence along with healthy children. Even before the adoption in Italy in 1971 of the first law on the right of children with special educational needs to studying in mass schools, the process of integration has already begun in some parts of the country. It happened after closing psychiatric hospitals and boarding schools for children with developmental disorders. The Italians call this period 'wild integration', but what was taking place was closer to inclusion because the main goal was to adapt children to the school community so that everyone could feel belonging to a certain team. At that time, the adoption of differences as an inherent personality trait was on the forefront [1].

The peculiarity of the Italian approach to inclusive education lies in the close interaction of schools with specialists of health care organizations who carry out diagnostics and therapy. Pupils with special needs are provided with qualified support from teachers and specialists with diverse profiles who train them according to agreed programs. In mass municipality institutions (pre-school, school) teacher assistants work, who help schoolchildren with limited health opportunities, and together with the class teacher are responsible for their success in training students with special needs. The assistant along with the teacher compose individual curriculums for each pupil with developmental needs, taking into account his/her training needs, in particular in correctional and rehabilitation assistance, which in some cases is provided outside the school in the centers of medical and social rehabilitation. An important requirement is the fact that with the presence of a blind or deaf student in the classroom, the whole class teaches the Braille or the gestural language. Currently, counseling services are operating in the educational departments of the provinces of the country consisting of specialists of various profiles, school administrators, employees of educational departments, representatives of non-governmental organizations, specialists of health protection services are involved if necessary. The staff of these services arranges inclusive education, identifying the needs of children, providing advisory and educational assistance to teachers and school administration [7, p. 51-55].

There is a socio-democratic model of social policy in Scandinavian countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland). This model, unlike conservative and liberal models, is characterized by universalism and equality. The state solves many problems which traditionally belong to 'family sphere' (for example, care for children and elderly people). Inclusive education at public secondary schools is provided for all children and youth at risk, especially for persons with developmental needs. One of the leading tasks of pedagogical teams of these institutions is to create a favorable atmosphere and friendly relations between all pupils [1, p. 103-120].

Inclusive education in Scandinavian countries is based on the recognition of necessity to satisfy different needs of children with developmental needs. The child learns together with everyone, but masters only the material available to her/him at a pace favorable to her/him. The quality of inclusive education is the responsibility of the whole school, the staff of teachers and parents. The main place is given to the provision of the necessary means of support that must be diverse and dynamic. The main teacher in the class is assisted by the second teacher - a consultant in special education, who is not enrolled in the staff of the school and serves a number of schools.

Much attention is paid to the adaptation of the physical environment to the needs of students with developmental abnormalities. A convenient access to the school is created and a favorable inside environment is provided. In the practice of these countries, the removal of a student from the usual class (partial or full) occurs only when it is obvious that learning with provision of additional support and service does not meet the educational, emotional and social needs of a student. In these cases, there is a need to find other ways of learning. In general, we note that the integration of children with special needs in a healthy environment peers, as well as their educational and social inclusion, are in the developed countries of the world pedagogical phenomena that not only received scientific justification, but also firmly entered the education system and public life. In conditions of integration and inclusion children with disabilities learn role behavior of healthy students and the main efforts are directed at entry into the educational space of the class, adaptation to the requirements of the institution of education and receive support in education. At present, issues of social and professional rehabilitation of children with disabilities, adolescents and young people with disabilities are a topical issue in virtually all countries.

Ukraine was no exception. At the same time, professional education, including higher education, is of great importance for their successful integration into society. However, in Ukraine this problem has not yet taken its proper place, as it happens in civilized countries. Thus, in the educational system of Ukraine, insufficient attention is paid to the problem of higher education for persons with disabilities, the number of which has increased significantly in recent years. There is at all no educational and rehabilitation structure of higher education for this category of persons with disabilities among young people, universities and specialties are not defined, which are recommended to conduct training for this category of people, there is no methodology and methodological support for the educational process, educational programs are not developed, according to nosology diseases and degrees of somato-psychological functions of the body. All this requires the search and development of a methodology for the full integration of this category of young people into a society of healthy people with the inclusion of the relevant specialty in this process of study at the university.

Life skills program for youth

Even 20-25 years ago, the main form of training for young people with disabilities was the acquisition of working specialties. At the time of independence and the development of a democratic socially oriented state, educational institutions began to appear in Ukraine, in which people in this category began to receive specialized secondary education. So, in the Kharkiv Economic Technical Boarding School young people with disabilities acquire the profession of an accountant-economist; Economic Planning Boarding School of Kamenets-Po- dolskyi prepares specialists in accounting, auditing and production management; Zhytomyr Technical Boarding School provides training of computer operators; Luhansk Professional Lyceum produces specialists of cutting and making clothes with elements of modeling; Chernihiv College of Law accepts juveniles with disabilities to study in the field of jurisprudence.

At the same time, over the past 15 years, especially abroad, pursuing studies at higher education institutions by young people with disabilities have been spreading.

For example, in Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, advisory centers have been opened at higher educational establishments where individual applicants choose the university, specialty, term and form of education [1, p. 97]. There are also universities and institutes in Russia where individuals with disabilities study: Moscow Boarding Institute for young people with disorders of the musculoskeletal system, in five departments of which students study economics, law, foreign languages, applied mathematics, editorial and publishing business. A correspondence institute for the rehabilitation and vocational training of blind students has been established at the Novosibirsk Institute of Social and Professional Rehabilitation. There is also a correspondence humanitarian department for people with disabilities at Chelyabinsk State University [4, p. 68].

Recently, Ukraine has also begun to actively develop and introduce educational institutions for the education, vocational training and vocational rehabilitation of young people with disabilities. One of these institutions of higher learning is 'Ukraine' Open International University, which provides training for young people with disabilities in various areas of vocational training. A specialized department has also been established at the Crimean Humanitarian University, where students of this category study in the fields of Social Pedagogy, Practical Psychology, Foreign Languages, Ukrainian Language and Literature, History, Visual Arts [5, c . 163]. Thus, obtaining higher education by young people with disabilities will enable them to gain spiritual and material independence, thereby developing and harmonizing their vital activity with society.

The next step is the development of new technologies for open and distance learning. An important area is the organization of systematic research on the problems of development, training and education of students with special needs. Moreover, an important aspect of these studies should be the involvement of young people with disabilities in the scientific work of this area, because they, like no one else, know the problem from the inside.

Other areas may be the creation of scientific student cells to research into the problems of motivation, value orientations, orientation of the personality of young people with disabilities, the organization of systematic scientific, independent work of students with different levels of development, preparation of the best student works for reporting at inter-university scientific conferences.

After receiving higher vocational education by young people with disabilities, the process of their vocational rehabilitation does not end at that point. Next the search for a proper workplace and employment comes. On the basis of the International Labor Organization Convention No. 159 “On Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment of Persons with Functional Limitations” ratified by Ukraine, when addressing the employment problem, one should adhere to the principle of equal employment opportunities for persons with disabilities and ordinary young people who have received vocational education. To ensure such equal opportunities, the Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities, recommended by the United Nations, provide for the use of incentive quotas for people with disabilities. Such quotas are provided for by Ukrainian legislation. At the same time, it is necessary to concentrate significant efforts on such instruments of employment policy for persons with disabilities, such as granting loans to small enterprises of persons with disabilities, concluding special contracts and granting preferential rights to production upon a government order, etc.

The stance of certain employers in hiring young people with disabilities remains negative today. There is a widespread bias in hiring people in this category. First of all, this is due to the lack of awareness of the professional capacities of persons with disabilities. Employers do not have enough information about: * professional opportunities of young people with disabilities - positive examples;

* a system of vocational rehabilitation and employment of young people with disabilities, opportunities of government employment services; * achievements and good practices in the employment of young people with disabilities in other enterprises, in other regions, countries.

An important activity of employment centers on promotion of the employment of young people with disabilities should be labor and social adaptation services in the workplace. This may include primary information and consulting, moral and psychological support for both the employee and the employer, members of the workforce. Medium-term (from 1 to 6 months) monitoring of the success of employment will help to clarify the problems that arise among young people from among persons with disabilities in the first months of work. Practice shows that an effective means of securing an employee in the workplace is the cooperation of employment centers with employers, heads of enterprises and their trade union committees [3, p. 17].

When implementing measures aimed at improving the competitiveness of young people with disabilities in the labor market, it is necessary to build their skills and abilities to overcome social exclusion, and establish contacts with others. Given the lack of social experience these young people have, we must train them to find their place in the team, engage in dialogue, analyze the actions of other people, and build their own behavior in accordance with the specific situation.

The practice shows that in some cases the low efficiency of promoting employment for young people with disabilities is due to the fact that in certain employment centers they are trying to solve this complex and multifaceted problem with their own resources, consider the employment of persons with disabilities as a separate social problem, without taking into account other spheres of disabled youth's activity. Successes on the way of integration (reintegration) of persons with disabilities into society, working life can be achieved only by ensuring fruitful cooperation of all stakeholders, in particular government bodies and institutions, civil organizations that deal with young people from the category of persons with disabilities. Civil organizations do not have the authority and resource base of public institutions, but they have a number of opportunities that are not characteristic of state structures. They unite people with disabilities, so they know their problems, needs, interests, and value priorities very well. Cooperation with them as representatives of this category of citizens will help employment centers, together with other institutions of society, primarily government agencies, state social insurance funds, employers, more effectively employ youth with disabilities [3, p. 23].

Only a constructive interaction of employment centers with all organizations involved in problems of youth with disabilities, close cooperation with each young person will allow you to effectively implement activities aimed at increasing its activity and competitiveness in the labor market, finding and selecting suitable work.

Young people with disabilities, starting to work at the enterprises where the trade union was established, fall under its protection. First of all, the trade union should contribute to the adaptation of a young man in the workplace, his entry into the team and the establishment of relations with his work colleagues. The issues of creating conditions for effective work of a person with disability and ensuring decent wages for him/her should be reflected in the collective employment agreement.

An important way to integrate children and young people with disabilities into social life is their sociocultural rehabilitation in social service institutions: centers for early social rehabilitation, centers for the social and psychological rehabilitation of children and young people with disabilities; specialized rehabilitation centers, career guidance centers for children and young people with disabilities. The following principles are the basis of these centers: a child with disability is an equal member of society, it should have equal opportunities with others, and the society, state and family should provide them, children should live and develop in their natural environment, in their families; rehabilitation services for children and young people with disabilities should be delivered at the place of residence, in their community; formation of life competence of a child with disability is impossible without an appropriate social environment, without communication with peers, without a team. The completed result of such rehabilitation is a stable personality of young people with disabilities who are adapted to social life, have acquired professional skills, have the opportunity to work in public production or organize their own work (private entrepreneurship). If all these measures are systematically implemented, the problem of the employment of young people with disabilities will no longer be so acute.

Conclusion

So, the issue of employment of young people with disabilities is acute and painful for this category of people, because it entails a number of other problems: low level of material well-being, social exclusion, disintegration, and others. The state, at the level of its capabilities, is trying to solve this problem, but, unfortunately, there are still few such measures. Gradually, regulatory support is being created to address the problem of employment of young people with disabilities. At present, social and professional rehabilitation of this category of young people with disabilities is acquiring great importance in solving this problem.

Life Skills Training Manual For Youth Ppt Presentation

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